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PCem Migration Guide

January 7, 2022 - written by richardg867

PCem users sometimes ask us about migrating their emulated setups to 86Box. While it is true that 86Box started out as a fork of PCem, we have since rewritten many components and made many additions, outgrowing our “fork” status. This post details all the differences between the two emulators that you have to keep in mind when migrating your setups to 86Box.

Performance will be different

One aspect commonly used to compare PCem and 86Box is the emulation performance. There is indeed such a difference, but not everything is as black and white as it seems.

The New Recompiler

PCem v15 introduced a rewritten dynamic recompiler, which was primarily aimed at improving emulation performance in games; however, it also caused minor to severe performance regressions in other applications. One example of a regressed application is the (ironically related to a game) MapEdit level editor for Wolfenstein 3D, which we measured to lose as much as 85% emulation speed with the new recompiler on a relatively sensible Pentium 75 setup.

86Box uses the previous recompiler from PCem versions before v15, with optimizations performed by us, as we have determined that the new one causes too many regressions to be adopted as a sensible default. There is a way for you to try out the new recompiler on 86Box, though: go to our Jenkins, find whatever build number you’re using (here’s 3400, the release build for v3.1) and download the New Recompiler (beta) variant that’s right for your host operating system and CPU architecture.

Accuracy is slow

PCem’s emulation of some core system components, such as the Programmable Interval Timer (PIT), takes a few shortcuts to improve performance. These shortcuts are perfectly fine for games, which is what PCem targets; although, they have caused issues with the software preservation side of things, as we found out with Microsoft Word 1.0, the MR BIOS and other old pieces of software.

In addition to taking fewer shortcuts, 86Box also tries to follow the specifications of these components, rather than implement the minimum viable feature set, which is - once again - good enough for games, but not good enough for some other applications. Generally speaking, the more accurate a component’s emulation is made, the more host CPU horsepower it will require. There are certain limits to what’s attainable to emulate (as an example, we don’t do CPU caches, as that is too complex even for other non-PC emulators), but we try to follow what’s possible.

Bring your own manager

PCem has a built-in manager, which allows you to keep and run multiple emulated machine configurations from one place. 86Box does not have such a manager, though one is planned for the future. For now, you can use our 86Box Manager application, which provides basic configuration management; or, even better, use the community-developed WinBox for 86Box, which has an user-friendly interface resembling PC virtualizers, as well as presets, screenshot and printed document management, and other cool features.

There is no migration path for configuration files, as the format is too different. You will have to reconfigure your emulated machine on 86Box, but that’s a nice opportunity to double-check your configuration while also checking out our features. More on the differences between PCem and 86Box in the configuration department later.

Machine list

86Box has most of the machines PCem emulates, though we have removed, renamed and/or recategorized some of them for various reasons. The table below (make sure to scroll down) provides a reference for v4.0.

PCem name 86Box category and name Notes
[8088] AMI XT clone 8088:
[8088] AMI XT clone
[8088] Atari PC3 - Not implemented due to its undocumented Atari ST-based bus mouse.
[8088] Compaq Portable Plus 8088:
[8088] Compaq Portable
[8088] DTK XT clone 8088:
[8088] DTK PIM-TB10-Z
[8088] Generic XT clone 8088:
[8088] Generic XT clone
[8088] IBM PC 8088:
[8088] IBM PC (1981/1982)
See here for differences between the 1981 and 1982 BIOS revisions.
[8088] IBM PCjr 8088:
[8088] IBM PCjr
[8088] IBM XT 8088:
[8088] IBM XT (1982/1986)
See here for differences between the 1982 and 1986 BIOS revisions.
[8088] Juko XT clone 8088:
[8088] Juko ST
[8088] Leading Edge Model M - Not implemented yet.
[8088] NCR PC4i 8088:
[8088] NCR PC4i
86Box emulates the NCR Graphics Adapter (NGA) that went with this machine.
[8088] Phoenix XT clone 8088:
[8088] Phoenix XT clone
[8088] Schneider EuroPC 8088:
[8088] Schneider EuroPC
[8088] Tandy 1000 8088:
[8088] Tandy 1000
[8088] Tandy 1000 HX 8088:
[8088] Tandy 1000 HX
[8088] Thomson TO16 PC - Not implemented yet.
[8088] Toshiba T1000 8088:
[8088] Toshiba T1000
[8088] VTech Laser Turbo XT - Not implemented yet due to an unknown jumper settings mechanism.
[8088] Xi8088 8088:
[8088] Xi8088
[8088] Zenith Data SupersPort 8088: [8088] Zenith Data
Systems SupersPort (Z-184)
[8086] Amstrad PC1512 8086:
[8086] Amstrad PC1512
[8086] Amstrad PC1640 8086:
[8086] Amstrad PC1640
[8086] Amstrad PC2086 8086:
[8086] Amstrad PC2086
[8086] Amstrad PC3086 8086:
[8086] Amstrad PC3086
[8086] Amstrad PC5086 - Not implemented yet.
[8086] Amstrad PPC512/640 8086:
[8086] Amstrad PPC512/640
[8086] Compaq Deskpro 8086:
[8086] Compaq Deskpro
[8086] Olivetti M24 8086:
[8086] Olivetti M21/24/24SP
[8086] Sinclair PC200 8086:
[8086] Amstrad PC20(0)
The Sinclair PC200 is a rebadged Amstrad PC20, keeping the same hardware.
[8086] Tandy 1000 SL/2 8086:
[8086] Tandy 1000 SL/2
[8088] Toshiba T1200 8086:
[8088] Toshiba T1200
[8086] VTech Laser XT3 - Not implemented yet due to an unknown jumper settings mechanism.
[286] AMI 286 clone 80286:
[NEAT] DataExpert 286
[286] Award 286 clone 80286:
[SCAT] Hyundai Solomon 286KP
[286] Bull Micral 45 - Not implemented yet.
[286] Commodore PC 30 III 80286:
[ISA] Commodore PC 30 III
[286] Compaq Portable II 80286:
[ISA] Compaq Portable II
[286] DELL System 200 - Not implemented yet.
[286] Epson PC AX - Not implemented yet.
[286] Epson PC AX2e - Not implemented yet.
[286] Goldstar GDC-212M 80286:
[SCAT] Goldstar GDC-212M
[286] GW-286CT GEAR 80286:
[286] Hyundai Super-286TR 80286:
[SCAT] Hyundai Super-286TR
[286] IBM AT 80286:
[286] IBM PS/1 model 2011 80286:
[ISA] IBM PS/1 model 2011
[286] IBM PS/2 Model 30-286 80286:
[ISA] IBM PS/2 model 30-286
[286] IBM PS/2 Model 50 80286:
[MCA] IBM PS/2 model 50
[286] IBM XT Model 286 80286:
[ISA] IBM XT Model 286
[286] Samsung SPC-4200P 80286:
[SCAT] Samsung SPC-4200P
[286] Samsung SPC-4216P 80286:
[SCAT] Samsung SPC-4216P
[286] Samsung SPC-4620P 80286:
[SCAT] Samsung SPC-4620P
[286] Toshiba T3100e 80286:
[ISA] Toshiba T3100e
[286] Trigem 286M 80286:
[GC103] TriGem 286M
[286] Tulip AT Compact - Not implemented yet.
[386SX] Acer 386SX25/N - BIOS is undumped, preventing us from implementing and validating this machine.
[386SX] AMA-932J i386SX:
[HT18] AMA-932J
[386SX] AMI 386SX clone - Removed due to bugs and a lack of identification.
[386SX] Amstrad MegaPC i386SX:
[WD76C10] Amstrad MegaPC
As with PCem, the integrated Mega Drive is not emulated.
[386SX] Commodore SL386SX-25 i386SX:
[SCAMP] Commodore SL386SX-25
[386SX] DTK 386SX clone i386SX:
[NEAT] DTK 386SX clone
[386SX] Epson PC AX3 - Not implemented yet.
[386SX] IBM PS/1 model 2121 i386SX:
[ISA] IBM PS/1 model 2121
[386SX] IBM PS/2 Model 55SX i386SX:
[MCA] IBM PS/2 model 55SX
[386SX] KMX-C-02 i386SX:
[386SX] Packard Bell Legend 300SX - Not implemented yet.
[386SX] Samsung SPC-6033P i386SX:
[SCAMP] Samsung SPC-6033P
[386DX] AMI 386DX clone i386DX/i486:
[OPTi 495] DataExpert SX495
486 CPUs are also supported, like on the real motherboard.
[386DX] Compaq Deskpro 386 i386DX:
Not implemented yet.
[386DX] ECS 386/32 i386DX:
[C&T 386] ECS 386/32
[386DX] IBM PS/2 Model 70 (type 3) i386DX: [MCA] IBM PS/2
model 70 (type 3)
[386DX] IBM PS/2 Model 80 i386DX: [MCA] IBM PS/2
model 80 (type 2)
The Type 3 is also available.
[386DX] MR 386DX clone i386DX/i486: [OPTi 495]
DataExpert SX495 (MR BIOS)
486 CPUs are also supported, like on the real motherboard.
[386DX] Samsung SPC-6000A i386DX:
[C&T 386] Samsung SPC-6000A
[486] AMI 486 clone i486 (Socket 168 and 1):
[ALi M1429] Olystar LIL1429
[486] AMI WinBIOS 486 i486 (Socket 2):
[ALi M1429G] Kaimei SA-486
[486] Award SiS 496/497 i486 (Socket 3):
[SiS 496] Rise Computer R418
Not an exact match. The R418 is closest in chipset, BIOS and feature set.
[486] Elonex PC-425X - BIOS is undumped, preventing us from implementing and validating this machine.
[486] IBM PS/1 Model 2133 (EMEA 451) - Removed due to cache abuse by the BIOS diagnostics.
[486] IBM PS/2 Model 70 (type 4) i486 (Socket 168 and 1):
[MCA] IBM PS/2 model 70 (type 4)
[486] Packard Bell PB410A i486 (Socket 2):
[ACC 2168] Packard Bell PB410A
[Socket 4] Intel Premiere/PCI Socket 4:
[i430LX] Intel Premiere/PCI
[Socket 4] Packard Bell PB520R Socket 4:
[i430LX] Packard Bell PB520R
[Socket 5] Intel Advanced/EV Socket 7 (Single Voltage):
[i430FX] Intel Advanced/EV
[Socket 5] Intel Advanced/ZP Socket 5:
[i430FX] Intel Advanced/ZP
[Socket 5] Itautec Infoway Multimidia - OEM version of the Intel Advanced/ZP above, with an undumped BIOS.
[Socket 5] Packard Bell PB570 - Inaccurate spec sheets (430NX vs. 430FX) being investigated as of writing.
[Socket 7] ASUS P/I-P55TVP4 Socket 7 (Dual Voltage):
[i430VX] ASUS P/I-P55TVP4
See PIIX southbridge mismatch.
[Socket 7] ASUS P/I-P55T2P4 Socket 7 (Dual Voltage):
[i430HX] ASUS P/I-P55T2P4
See PIIX southbridge mismatch.
[Socket 7] Epox P55-VA Socket 7 (Dual Voltage):
[i430VX] Epox P55-VA
See PIIX southbridge mismatch.
[Socket 7] Shuttle HOT-557 Socket 7 (Dual Voltage):
[i430VX] Shuttle HOT-557
See PIIX southbridge mismatch.
[Super 7] FIC VA-503+ Super Socket 7:
[VIA MVP3] FIC VA-503+
Not to be confused with the FIC VA-503A, which has a different southbridge.
[Socket 8] Intel VS440FX Socket 8:
[i440FX] Intel VS440FX
See PIIX southbridge mismatch.
[Slot 1] Gigabyte GA-686BX Slot 1:
[i440BX] Gigabyte GA-686BX

CMOS and Flash

While it’s easier and recommended to just redo the CMOS settings from scratch, you can migrate them (along with Flash ROM data if applicable) from PCem by following these steps:

  1. Configure your machine on 86Box, and let it boot into the BIOS once.
  2. Exit 86Box. An nvr folder should appear inside the emulated machine’s folder, containing a .nvr file with the machine’s internal name, and also a .bin file with the same name if the machine is equipped with Flash ROM.
  3. Copy the <configuration name>.<PCem machine name>.nvr file from PCem’s nvr folder to the 86Box machine’s nvr folder, using the same name as the .nvr file created by 86Box.
  4. If the machine is equipped with Flash ROM, copy the flash.bin file from PCem’s roms folder for the machine you’re emulating to the 86Box machine’s nvr folder, using the same name as the .bin file created by 86Box.

PIIX southbridge mismatch

PCem’s implementation of the Intel 430HX, 430VX and 440FX chipsets uses the PIIX southbridge, while real motherboards and 86Box use the PIIX3. Some operating systems, such as Windows NT/2000/XP, will fail to boot after a PIIX to PIIX3 transition (and vice-versa) due to the IDE controller’s new PCI ID.

If you run into this issue, one option is to reinstall the operating system. Another option is to boot the operating system on PCem, uninstall the PIIX IDE driver (on Windows 2000/XP, use Device Manager to replace the 82371FB IDE controller driver with the Standard Dual Channel one), then switch to 86Box.

Settings differences

The 86Box settings interface is designed to be easy to navigate, though you should keep the main differences in relation to PCem in mind:







User interface

The 86Box user interface should look familiar to PCem users, with two main differences: the menu layout and the status bar. The menu bar had some options moved to the Settings window, and media controls moved to the Media menu. The status bar contains activity indicators, with the same controls as the Media menu also being accessible by clicking the icons. While we don’t have the Machine window, most of what it provides on PCem is accessible through the title bar, menu bar and status bar on 86Box.

Media controls through the Media menu and status bar.

Note that the key combination to release mouse capture on 86Box is F8+F12, as we’ve found PCem’s Ctrl+End to conflict with some applications. You can also use the middle mouse button to release capture, unless a three-button or wheel mouse is configured.


86Box is quite a bit different in the media department as well. More disk image formats are supported, including our own 86F format for floppy bitstream images. Unlimited hard drives (the controllers are the limit) and up to 4 removable drives of each type (floppy, CD-ROM, Zip, MO) can be installed, with each removable drive getting its own entry on the Media menu and status bar.

No host CD-ROM passthrough

Using a host CD-ROM drive is not supported by 86Box. We have experimented with that in the past, but it resulted in really dodgy platform-specific code, which performed poorly and didn’t work with some discs and the copy protection on some games. On top of that, optical disc drives are becoming a rare item on the modern computers you’d want to run 86Box on anyway.

We recommend ripping your discs to .cue + .bin before using them in 86Box, as that format preserves the sector mode, audio tracks and other information that .iso doesn’t. Note that .cue images with .wav, .mp3 or other compressed/encapsulated audio tracks are not supported by neither PCem nor 86Box.

Zip 250 and MO

86Box supports Iomega Zip 250 disks, which require Zip 250 support to be enabled at a drive level in the Other removable devices settings page. Magneto-optical (MO) is also supported, as another removable medium which provides more storage than Zip disks: up to 1.3 GB per cartridge.

Cassette formats

PCem’s IBM cassette emulation uses the .pzx format, originally designed for ZX Spectrum tapes. 86Box supports the .cas format developed as part of PCE/ibmpc, as well as audio recordings in .wav or .pcm format. The pzx2wav tool in PZX tools can potentially convert .pzx tapes to .wav for 86Box, though we haven’t tested that.


We hope this post helped you understand the differences between PCem and 86Box. We’ve come a long way ever since we forked PCem, but we acknowledge our roots and strive to make things reasonably easy for users coming from PCem. If you have any questions about the migration process or 86Box as a whole, feel free to reach out through Discord or IRC, and we’ll be glad to help.